1889 - 1943 (53 years)
||Fritz Eichenberg |
||6 Dec 1889
||13 Kis 5650
||29 Jan 1935
||Brugge, Belgium 
||4 Mar 1943
- Deported from Drancy to Majdanek CC on Transport #50
||Lived in Düsseldorf, 29.1.1936 fled to Brügge, Belgium. |
- Place and date of birth: Adelebsen, 06/12/1889.
- Last address known in Belgium: 3, Avenue Elisabeth - Knokke.
- Reason given for incarceration: Mr Eichenberg was a Jewish man.
- Entered to the camp of Gurs, where he stayed from 29/10/1940 to 23/09/1942.
- Transferred to the camp of Risevaltes, where he stayed from 25/09/1942 to 10/10/1942.
- Transferred to the camp of Gurs, where he stayed from 14/10/1942 to 26/02/1943 (date of departure with a convoy).
- Deported from Drancy to Majdanek on Transport #50, on 04/03/1943 (this information comes from a document of the
International Tracing Service – Arolsen). In an attestation for the obtaining of a reparation indemnity, they said that
he was deported from Drancy to the concentration camp of Auschwitz on 04/03/1943.
- He wasn’t repatriated.
It is not entirely clear why for one month the French transports went to Sobibor rather than Auschwitz-Birkenau. The Auschwitz Chronicle, compiled by Danuta Czech Republic, shows that in late February and early March 1943 transports of Jews from Berlin, Germany (including some Norwegian Jews) were reaching the camp. It had been expected that most of these Jews would be fit for work, but in fact most of them were selected for gassing. Other transports during this time came from Poland and the Netherlands (which also supplied 19,000 victims to Sobibor); and on 4 March 1943 Convoy 49 from Drancy reached Auschwitz.
However, during the first months of 1943 the SS and their civilian contractors were attempting to make the new Crematorium II operational, and this was taking longer than expected. Moreover, there was a resurgence of typhus in the camp at this time. On the other hand, transports to Sobibor and Treblinka seem to have slackened during this period.
Richard Glazar reports that very few trains came to Treblinka in early 1943. Most of Poland’s Jews had either been killed or were being exploited for labour, and transports formerly expected from Romania and Romanian-occupied territory had not materialised.
Belzec ceased to function as a gassing centre at the end of 1942. Thus Auschwitz may have seemed overloaded, while Sobibor had spare "capacity". No doubt railway schedules throughout Europe and military railway and rolling-stock requirements also played a part in the decision.
Letter from August 1942
The Jews on the first two trains from France to Sobibor were victims of a reprisal action for the killing of two Luftwaffe officers in Paris on 13 February 1943. The Germans had previously responded to attacks of this kind by executing hostages or political prisoners sentenced to death, but the military authorities had come to believe that this type of response was counter-productive. The SS and the German Embassy therefore decided instead to deport 2,000 Jews, all men fit for work aged from 16 to 65, foreigners or stateless and of a "deportable" nationality. The commandant of Paris, Kurt Lischka, transmitted this order to the head of the French Police, who was apparently not confident that he would be able to fill the quota easily in Paris. He therefore passed on the order to the police prefects in the former free zone, who carried out a man-hunt in the camps and reception centres in their territory and among the "Groups of Foreign Workers" (Groupes de travailleurs étrangers or "GTE"), and arrested Jews in their homes. All the victims were taken to the camp at Gurs.
Little or no attempt was made to separate French citizens from "deportables". Victims taken to Gurs from the camp at Nexon included Polish and Czech Republic Jews who had fought for France in 1940 or were members of the Foreign Legion. One was a 65-year old rabbi. They were given five minutes to pack their bags. From Gurs two transports to Drancy were organised: one of 975 Jews on 26 February; the other, of 770 Jews, on 2 March.
Jews in Drancy Courtyard #1
Convoy No 50: The first contingent, reduced to 888 men aged from 16 to 65, made up almost all Convoy No 50, which left Drancy for Sobibor on 4 March 1943. 136 deportees from Drancy, including 66 women, were added to them. The 1,024 deportees included 377 Poles, 268 Germans, 99 Austrians, 91 Russians and 30 Dutch prisoners, a total of 865. The remaining 159 victims were presumably French citizens. They included Elie, Marie and Suzanne Levi, born in Paris in 1929, 1934 and 1937 respectively. The official destination of Convoy 50 was Chelm near Lublin, where some of the deportees were selected for work at Majdanek before being transferred to Auschwitz in July 1943. Four of them were still alive in 1945. The rest of the convoy was gassed at Sobibor.
||4 Oct 2010 |
||At least one living or private individual is linked to this item - Details withheld.|
- [S98] Hamburg Archives, Hamburg, Germany.
- [S206] Belgian Victims of WW2 Archives.
- [S180] Aktion Reinhard Camps .