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Rabbi Eliyahu David Aderet Rabinovitch-Teomim

Rabbi Eliyahu David Aderet Rabinovitch-Teomim

Male 1843 - 1905  (61 years)

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  • Name Eliyahu David Aderet Rabinovitch-Teomim 
    Prefix Rabbi 
    Born 4 Jun 1843  Pikeliai, Lithuania Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Biography From the Encyclopaedia Judaica
    Rabinowitz-Teomim, Elijah David Ben Benjamin (ADe-Re-T; 1842/43ñ1905), Ashkenazi chief rabbi of Jerusalem, Israel. Elijah
    David was born in Pikeln, Lithuania. His father Benjamin Rabinowitz, who was rabbi of Zamosc and later of Wilkomierz, was called "Benjamin the righteous" because of his great piety; it was said that he never slept the night through and never ate a meal before completing the study of a tractate. As Elijah David was a twin, his brother being Zevi Judah, the name Teomim ("twins") was added to the family surname. Elijah David was known from his youth as an unusual genius and in 1874 was chosen rabbi of the community of Ponevezh. In 1893 he was appointed rabbi of Mir which, though smaller than Ponevezh, was renowned for its large yeshivah. His decision to move to Mir started a controversy, and the leaders of Ponevezh sent "an open letter" to Mir asking that their rabbi be "freed," but the appeal was ignored.

    His period at Mir was regarded as the creative period of his life. There he published the most notable of his works, as well as articles which appeared in many periodicalsóHa Tevunah, Ha-Me'assef, Kevod ha-Levanon, Ha-Zofeh, Ha-Maggid, Keneset Hakhmei Yisrael, Ittur Soferim, Keneset ha-Gedolah, etc. In Mir he wrote no less than a hundred works, especially notes and glosses to the Talmud, Maimonides' Mishneh Torah, the Tur of Jacob b. Asher, the Shulhan Arukh, and responsa. His novellae and glosses on the Jerusalem, Israel Talmud entitled Tuv Yerushalayim appeared in the Romm-Vilnius edition (1922) and those on the Tur Hoshen Mishpat entitled Et Devar ha-Mishpat in the El ha-Mekorot (1959) edition of the Turim. His extraordinary erudition is discernible in his novellae and notes, and his great knowledge of historical matters from his correspondence on these subjects with Jacob Reifmann, Isaac Hirsch Weiss and others.

    The following of his works may be mentioned: Oholei David, Matta'ei Hadar, and Heshiv Davar, responsa; Gefen Adderet, on the Babylonian and Jerusalem, Israel Talmud; Seder ha-Mo'adot, on the festivals and special seasons; Ma'as la-Melekh, on Maimonides' Mishneh Torah; Ziyyunim la-Torah, source references; and Kelei ha-Ro'im, on the aggadot of the rabbis. Among his published works are: Zekher le-Mikdash (1889), on Hakhel; AHARIT ha-Shanim (1893); Over Orah, appended to N. Cahana, Orhot Hayyim (pt. 2, 1898); notes and glosses on the Mishneh Torah of Maimonides (1900); Teshuvah mi-Yirah (1906), on all topics in which Maimonides employs the phrase Yireh Li ("it seems to me"); Zahav Sheva (appended to Tosefot ha-Rashba, 1956), notes on the tosafot to Pesahim by Samson b. Abraham of Sens.

    In 1899 a new period of his life commenced. When Samuel Salant reached an advanced age and asked for a successor to be appointed chief rabbi of Jerusalem, Israel, extended negotiations with rabbis of the Diaspora began. At the recommendation of Hayyim Ozer Grodzinski of Vilnius, Elijah David was officially appointed in 1901. He succeeded in uniting the Jerusalem, Israel community, which was split into various kolelim and suffered from inner dissension between the perushim (the non-hasidic Ashkenazi community) and the Hasidim, and in forming a single organization for shehitah. He was also active in many communal spheres. He was the first treasurer of the Bikkur Holim hospital, made regulations for institutions of learning and cHARITyóparticularly in the yeshivah Ez Hayyim, and arranged strict supervision of shops and merchants. His local regulations and customs are still in force, included in the annual calendar which is published by the Ez Hayyim yeshivah. The most famous of his sons-in-law, Abraham Isaac ha-Kohen Kook, published a special brochure entitled Eder ha-Yakar (1906, 19672) describing his father-in-law's personality and quoting his testament, which shows the extraordinary humility and modesty of its author, and 20 of his letters.

    From Yehuda Klausner:
    The Aderet and his wife had six children: a daughter, Bat-Sheva who was married to Abraham Isaac ben Shlomo Zalman Hakohen KOOK, who later was the Chief Rabbi of Eretz Yisrael and five sons ñ Mordecay Yona, Abraham Moshe, Rafael Levi, Israel Shimon and Binyamin Abraham Moshe.
    The financial distress of the rabbi is described in his autobiography. Hundreds of property owners that signed his letter of appointment as the rabbi of Panevezys arranged a festive reception in his honor showering him with love and respect. However, his salary was only nine rubles a week and the store that his wife operated played an important role in the familyís finances.

    In 1883, the Aderet was offered the position of rabbi of Wilkomir (Ukmerge, Lithuania). When his community found out, a delegation of three notables came to him urging him to remain and they offered him an increase in salary of six rubles a week. As was later revealed, they were actually authorized to offer almost double that amount, but he did not bargain with them. In the end, he did not even receive the fifteen rubles promised him. The Aderet in Toldot describes the events as follows:
    ìI then began to suffer, no one should know from such misfortune, from want and need. I, in my naivet? relied on spoken words without, as is the custom, having them put in writing. Therefore, after I turned them down, they engaged a different rabbi in Wilkomir. Then the people of Panevezys for weeks and months no longer thought about my wages. It got to the point that for six weeks in a row we did not render any decisions on that which was permissible or that which was forbidden but with no results. For forty weeks my salary was not paid. Business in my store dwindled and expenses increased. The people of the city said: ìHow is it possible that my wealthy father-in-law from Warsaw who had successful enterprises did not support me.î My father-in-law felt, ìHow is it possible that a wealthy city such as Panevezys would relegate their rabbi to poverty and deprivation and not live up to that which they promised to pay him, fifteen silver rubles a week . . .î

    As already mentioned, in 1886 the Aderet married off his daughter Bat-Sheva to Rabbi KOOK. He had difficulty paying for the wedding and in the same year his son Abraham Moshe died and he did not have enough money to pay the physician. As a result from this lack of funds, he and his family had to vacate their apartment and move to smaller living quarters. In addition, he could no longer provide the meals at his table for his son-in-law and his daughter as was customary in those days. His son-in-law was forced to take a position as rabbi in another town. On this situation the Aderet later on laments, ìI wailed in bitterness over what my sins caused me . . .î
    It does not appear that the experience of the Aderet was unique for other rabbis report similar incidents. The issue of rabbis going on strike by refusing to issue decisions on Jewish law has been raised from the standpoint of Halakha (Jewish religious law).

    From the old Encyclopedia Judaica on the Internet:
    Russian rabbi; born at Pikeln, government of Kovno, June 11, 1845. He studied Talmud and rabbinics under his father (who was rabbi successively at Shilel, Rogova, and Vilkomir), and at the age of fifteen had acquired a substantial knowledge of Talmudic and rabbinical literature. In 1873 he was invited to the rabbinate of Poneviezh, in the government of Kovno. After twenty years in that rabbinate he was appointed rabbi of Mir, government of Minsk. In 1901 he was made assistant to Samuel Salant (chief rabbi of the Ashkenazic communities at Jerusalem, Israel), whose age precluded his continuing to discharge unassisted the full duties of the rabbinate. Rabinowitz wrote novell? on Maimonides' "Yad" (Wilna, 1900), and published also novell? and glosses on all branches of Talmudic literature in "Ha-Tebunah," "Kebod ha-Lebanon," "Ha-?ofeh," "Ha-Maggid," "Keneset ?akme Yisrael," "'I??ur Soferim," and "Keneset ha-Gedolah." Many of his novell? and notes are printed in works to which he gave his approbation.J. B.  [1
    Hebrew Birth 6 Siv 5603 
    Hebrew Death 3 Ada 5665 
    Immigration Israel Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Occupation Rosh Yeshiva 
    Residence Pikeliai, Lithuania Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Residence Jerusalem, Israel Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Died 8 Feb 1905  Jerusalem, Israel Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Person ID I13334  Blank Family
    Last Modified 6 Jul 2015 

    Father Rabbi Benyamin Rabinovitch,   b. 1810, Skoudas, Lithuania Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 15 Oct 1869  (Age 59 years) 
    Mother Toiba Kantor,   b. 1810,   d. 11 Sep 1848  (Age 38 years) 
    Family ID F9387  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family Feiga Minna Rosen,   b. Yes - date unknown,   d. 13 Nov 1905, Kfar Saba, Israel Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Children 
     1. Devora Rabinovitch-Teomim,   b. 15 Aug 1862, Panevezys, Lithuania Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Yes - date unknown
     2. Batsheva Alte Rabinovitch-Teomim,   b. 1867, Panevezys, Lithuania Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1888, Zemel, Lithuania Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 21 years)
     3. Yisrael Shimon Rabinovitch-Teomim,   b. 1 Dec 1873, Panevezys, Lithuania Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 15 Sep 1968, Jerusalem, Israel Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 94 years)
     4. Benyamin Rabinovitch-Teomim,   b. 1 Dec 1873, Panevezys, Lithuania Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Yes - date unknown
     5. Esther Frieda Rabinovitch-Teomim,   b. 1 May 1875, Panevezys, Lithuania Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Yes - date unknown
     6. Mordechai Yona Rabinovitch-Teomim,   b. 27 Jan 1877, Panevezys, Lithuania Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1947  (Age 69 years)
     7. Avraham Moshe Binyamin Rabinovitch-Teomim,   b. 1 Jun 1879, Panevezys, Lithuania Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1965, Tel Aviv, Israel Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 85 years)
     8. Rafael Levi Rabinovitch-Teomim,   b. 15 Feb 1881, Panevezys, Lithuania Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Yes - date unknown
    Last Modified 1 Jan 2010 
    Family ID F9226  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 4 Jun 1843 - Pikeliai, Lithuania Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsImmigration - - Israel Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsResidence - - Pikeliai, Lithuania Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsResidence - - Jerusalem, Israel Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - 8 Feb 1905 - Jerusalem, Israel Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth 
    Pin Legend  : Address       : Location       : City/Town       : County/Shire       : State/Province       : Country       : Not Set

  • Photos
    Rabbi Eliyahu David Aderet Rabinovitch-Teomim
    Rabbi Eliyahu David Aderet Rabinovitch-Teomim

  • Sources 
    1. [S68] Jewish Encyclopedia.


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